Cheryl Metcalf
Hand & Wrist Kinematic (HAWK) Measurement
Principal Investor: Dr Cheryl Metcalf
Project Team: Dr Scott Notley (Intitute of Sound & Vibration Research, UoS), Dr Martin Warner
Date: 2003 - present
Measuring Human Hand Function
The intricacies of functional hand movements is very difficult to capture and accurately measure. Subtle variations in movements, in order to optimise function have compounded the complexity of our ability to measure, arguably one of the most complex evolutionary development, in humans.

The human hand is the optimal functional tool; tasks which are seemingly impossible for even our most advanced robots are accomplished by a functional hand.
This platform technology could be utilised to understand more about how the hands move to complete functional tasks.

HAWK is a unique set of algorithms that can receive three-dimensional coordinates of a number of fixed points on the wrist, hand fingers and thumb, from, for example, a motion capture system, and can accurately measure, to less than a degree, all the dynamic joint information of the distal upper limb. It utilises a complex set of integrated algorithms to analyse the composite movements integral to hand function and is the first technique to accurately measure all these dynamic movements.

Vicon Motion Capture System
The Vicon motion analysis system is an infrared-based camera system, which uses passive reflective markers to identify body segments. The Faculty of Health Sciences currently has two Vicon systems; a 6-camera 460 and a state-of-the-art 12-camera T-Series system that includes 6xT40 and 6xT160 cameras. This new system is proving to be a powerful research tool, particularly in the area of hand biomechanics.

Project Progress
I developed HAWK between 2003 - 2010 and was rigorously validated during this period. HAWK has been filed as a national (UK) and international PCT patent application and has been used on several projects within the Faculty of Health Science, including, in chronoligical order, the silver ring splints project, the SmartArmeo project and investigating the efficacy of rehabilitation robots.

The following videos show the versatility of HAWK for capturing 3D movements of the wrist, hand, fingers and thumb during functional tasks. Recent progress has also seen HAWK working with methods to measure upper limb movement. Martin Warner from the Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Southampton is working on kinematic measurement of the scapula and glenohumeral joint. By combining these methods, we are now able to provide a comprehensive kinematic measurement technique for the upper limb; both proximal and distal joints. The video below illustrates this:

Collaborative Projects with Wincester School of Art
HAWK is currently being used to enable Winchester School of Arts Postgraduate Research Student Ben Jenkins to capture the movements of the hand. HAWK allowed Ben to analyse the interaction people have with sculpture and works of art. This multidisciplinary peoject brings together Art and Science. Ben Jenkins gives insight into his Fine Art practice that seeks to explore how discoveries in neuroscience, revealed by motion capture, may help to understand and map audience behaviour in response to art objects.

Metcalf, C. D. & Notley, S. V., 2011. Modified Kinematic Technique for Measuring Pathological Hyperextension and Hypermobility of the Interphalangeal Joints.IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 58(5), 1224-1231.

Metcalf, C.D., Spicka, C., Adams, J. & Macleod, C., 2009. Quantifying the Effectiveness of Silver Ring Splints to Correct Swan-Neck Deformity. XXII Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics. Cape Town: South Africa. 5 - 9 July. ISBN: 978-0-620-44037-0.

Hill, K., Burridge, J.H., Micera, S. & Metcalf, C.D., 2011. Kinematics of Unimpaired Reach-to-Grasp during Robotic Assisted Reaching. XXIIIth Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics.

Chappell, P.H., Metcalf, C.D., Burridge, J.H., Yule, V.T. & Pickering, R., 2010. Constant angular velocity of the wrist during the lifting of a sphere.Journal of Medical Engineering & Technology. 34(4), 274-284.

Metcalf, C. D., Notley, S. V., Chappell, P. H., Burridge, J. H. & Yule, V. T., 2008. Validation and Application of a Computational Model for Wrist and Hand Movements using Surface Markers. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering. 55(3), 1199-1210.

Metcalf, C. D., 2009. Challenges in Measuring Small Joint Movements: Hand Biomechanics and Health Technology Assessment. IMechE Measurement and Sensing in Medicine and Health: Capturing Motion and Musculoskeletal Dynamics. London: UK. 15 October. 25 - 28.

Adams, J., Macleod, C., Metcalf, C.D. & Spicka, C., 2008. ARC Silver Medal Award: A Research Report on the Effectiveness of Silver Ring Splints in Preventing Proximal Interphalangeal Joint Hyperextension during Functional Activity. The Journal of Rheumatology Occupational Therapy. 23(1), 19-21.

Gallos, Z., Adams, J. & Metcalf, C.D., 2009. Three-Dimensional Motion Analysis of the Rheumatoid Proximal Interphalangeal Joint with a Silver Ring Splint in Situ: A Matched Case Study. Rheumatology: British Society of Rheumatology Annual Meeting. Glasgow: UK. 28 Apri - 1 May. 48 (Supp 1), ii54.

Adams, J., Metcalf, C. D., Macleod, C., Spicka, C., Burridge, J. H., Cooper, C. & Cox, N., 2008. Three Dimensional Functional Motion Analysis of Silver Ring Splints in Rheumatoid Arthritis. Rheumatology: British Society of Rheumatology Annual Meeting. Liverpool: UK. 22-25 April. 47 (Supp 2), ii154-ii155.

Metcalf, C. D., Yule, V. T., Chappell, P. H., & Burridge, J. H., 2007. The Effects of Handedness on Movement Strategies of the Wrist. Journal of Biomechanics: Proceedings of the XXI Congress of the International Society of Biomechanics. Taipei: Taiwan. 1-5 July. 40 (Supp 2), S526.

Metcalf, C. D. & Adams, J. A., 2007. The Development and Clinical Application of a New, Small Hand Joint, Functional 3D Motion Analysis Assessment System for Rheumatology and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation Research. International Journal of Rehabilitation Research: Proc. of the 9th Congress of the European Federation for Research in Rehabilitation. Budapest: Hungary. 26-29 August. 30 (Supp 1), 24-25.

Metcalf, C. D., Chappell, P. H., Yule, V. & Burridge, J. H., 2005. Differences in Wrist Movements during a Clinical Hand Function Test. 4th IEEE EMBSS UK & RI Postgraduate Biomedical Engineering & Medical Physics Conference. 18 - 20 July. Reading, UK. 41 - 42.

Metcalf, C. D., Yule, V., Burridge, J. H. & Chappell, P. H., 2005. Enforcing Cyclic Movements of the Upper Limb for Movement Analysis Systems. Bath Hand & Wrist Biomechanics Symposium. 10 June. Bath, UK. p8.

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